EBC Annex 37 Low Exergy Systems for Heating and Cooling


Status: Completed (1999-2003)

Operating Agent: Markku Virtanen, VTT Building and Transport, PO Box 1803, FIN-02044 VTT
Finland Tel: +358 9 456 4700
Fax: +358 9 456 4815
Email: markku.virtanen[at]vtt.fi

Website: www.lowex.net



The overall objective of the Annex was to promote the rational use of energy by means of low valued and environmentally sustainable energy sources. The overall objective was divided into three goals:

  1. To investigate the potentials for replacing high valued energy (e.g. fossil fuels and electricity) by low valued energy sources and to assess the impact on global resources and the environment.
  2. To assess existing technologies and components for low exergy heating and cooling in buildings, to enhance the development of new technologies, and to provide the necessary tools for analysis and evaluation of low exergy systems.
  3. To work out strategic means for the introduction of low exergy solutions in buildings by case studies, design tools and guildelines.

The first preparation phase was held in March 1999 to outline the following objectives:


To improve the understanding of possible inputs/state-of-the-art in the countries


To improve the understanding of expected outputs / objectives of the countries

To identify the main tasks which the Annex should focus on

To identify the results which should be achieved

To identify the task distribution amoung the countries according to their main interests and experiences


Participants: Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden


Project Summary Report, Heating and Cooling with a Focus on Increased Energy Efficiency and Improved Comfort
Markku Virtanen, John Palmer, AECOM, 2010

Guidebook Summary Report, Heating and Cooling with Focus on Increased Energy Efficiency and Improved Comfort
Mia Ala-Juusela, VTT Research Notes 2256, VVT, 2004

Introduction to the Concept of Exergy - for a Better Understanding of Low-Temperature-Heating and High-Temperature-Cooling Systems
Masanori Shukuya, Abdelaziz Hammache, VTT, 2002

Literature review: Side Effects of Low Exergy Emission Systems
H.H.E.W. Eijdems, P.J.M. Op 't Veld, Novem – Sittard, 2000

The LowEx Guidebook is available at the Website.

Low Temperature Heating Systems Increased Energy Efficiency and Improved Comfort, 2002 (Brochure)

Towards Sustainable Architecture (Brochure)